|Picture credit: banjalukalive.com
Ratko Mladic was Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic's army chief throughout the Bosnian war. After Serb forces heavily bombarded the UN-protected town of Srebenica, Mladic entered the town with his troops, where he proceeded to separate Bosnian Muslim women and children from all the men aged 12 to 72. The women and children were taken to Muslim territory. The men, over 7,000 of them, were executed by Serbian forces over the next five days and buried in mass graves. Mladic was initially indicted by the International Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in 1995 and spent sixteen years as a fugitive, before finally being arrested in May 2011. Mladic has been extradited to The Hague where he will be tried for violations of the laws of war, crimes against humanity and two counts of genocide.
In 2002, the International Criminal Court for Yugoslavia amended the original 1995 indictment against Mladic.
Read the indictment issued by the International Criminal Court for Yugoslavia against Mladic and Karadzic.
In May 2011 former Bosnian Serb military general Ratko Mladic was arrested and transferred to The Hague. Mladic is accused of crimes against humanity and for planning the genocide of 8000 Muslim men and boys in Srebrenica in 1995 and the 43 month siege against Sarajevo where 10,000 people were killed. The International Criminal Tribunal of Yugoslavia (ICTY) prosecutors have proposed splitting the trial into two separate cases in order to expedite the proceedings and ensure a judgment of the ageing and unhealthy Mladic. ICTY has been criticized before for its lengthy trials such as the case against former Yugoslav president Slobodan Milosevic, who died in custody before a verdict had been reached. Dividing the process would be a positive and “practical” step to ensure justice for victims without compromising Mladic’s rights. (Reuters)
Ratko Mladic, the most wanted fugitive of the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), has finally been arrested. The arrest comes sixteen years after the tribunal issued the first indictment against Mladic. During this time the Serbian government was consistently criticized by the international community for not doing enough to arrest Mladic and others accused of war crimes. This article outlines the various charges Mladic will face when he is extradited to The Hague, including individual criminal responsibility for genocide, crimes against humanity and violations of the laws of war. (Balkan Insight
In December 2010 the UN announced the establishment of the International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals. The Residual Mechanism will conclude the remaining tasks of the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia as its mandate expires (as well as the Tribunal for Rwanda). Some observers argue the creation of another international court is a vote of no confidence in the capacity of courts in the former Yugoslav region to prosecute war crimes. Others, however, assert the decision reflects practical concerns, related to jurisdiction to prosecute Ratko Mladic and Goran Hadzic. Both men remain at large, possibly outside the region. (Balkan Insight)
The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) is expected to complete its work no later than 2014. The Tribunal's president, Patrick Robinson, hopes that the two remaining most-wanted fugitives, Ratko Mladić and Goran Hadžić, will be arrested and brought to justice before the end of the Tribunal's mandate. If this does not happen, they will be tried under the Tribunal's "legacy mechanism". This means that responsibility for the cases will be transferred to domestic courts in the Balkans. Robinson particularly praises the Court of Bosnia-Herzegovina for its fair trials and excellent cooperation with the ICTY. (Balkan Insight)
This timeline gives an extensive overview of events in the former Yugoslavia between 1974 and 2008. On July 21, 2008, Serbian security forces arrested Radovan Karadzic, former supreme commander of the armed forces and president of the Republika Srpska between 1992 and 1996. However, Ratko Mladic, chief of the Bosnian-Serb forces between 1991 and 1996, still hides from the Serbian security forces, allegedly with the help of retired Serbian and Bosnian-Serb military. (More or Less)
General Ratko Mladic and Radovan Karadzic have been on the ICTY's wanted list for over twelve years for allegedly committing war crimes at Srebrenica. This UN Observer article accuses Western powers, specifically the US, for not lifting even a finger for their capture. According to former Swedish Prime Minister Carl Bildt, there was a truly massive reluctance throughout the NATO chain of command - the senior commanders on all levels of relevance being American - to address (this) issue. The article speculates that Mladic and Karadzic will likely face a trial in 2008, when the ICTY closes its investigation, and escape justice.
Rene van der Linden, the chair of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, urges Serbia to find war criminals Radovan Karadzic and Ratko Mladic in order to speed up its membership in the European Union (EU). He points out that cooperating with the Hague Tribunal will prove that Serbia holds individuals, instead of the whole nation, responsible for war crimes. Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremic expresses a similar opinion by pledging full cooperation with the Hague Tribunal. In spite of all the support voiced by Belgrade, Mladic and Karadzic are allegedly roaming freely in Serbia. (Javno)
In May 2006, the European Union (EU) halted talks with Serbia, citing Belgradeâ€™s failure to capture war crimes suspect Ratko Mladic. Serbian Prime Minister Vojislav Kostunica presented a plan to arrest Mladic to a group of EU foreign ministers in hopes of strengthening ties with the EU. While accepting the proposal, the EU demands â€œvisible actionâ€? in cooperation with The Hague. (BBC)
In the hope of restarting dialogue on potential EU membership, Serbia drafted a plan to capture alleged genocide perpetrator Ratko Mladic. Analysts caution that the governments proposal, which includes better coordination of intelligence, may clash with the policies of the countries' various security agencies. Nonetheless, Belgrade seeks to emulate Croatia's successful 2005 arrest of a wanted former army general, a move which led to the countrys' closer ties with the EU. (Balkan Insight)
Serbia has failed to meet the EU-set deadline for the capture of Ratko Mladic by the end of April 2006, earning criticism from the countryâ€™s other democratic parties as well as International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) Chief Prosecutor Carla Del Ponte. Skeptics question the security services' sudden ease in retracing Mladic's movements between 2002 and 2005 after claiming to not know his hideouts. While Serbian police have arrested several individuals believed to have helped Mladic, the international community still doubts the validity of these efforts to track down the genocide fugitive. (Transitions Online)
The European Union (EU) has suspended Union membership negotiations with Serbia following Belgrades' failure to handover Ratko Mladic to the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia (ICTY). The Serbian government insisted that it was trying to meet the EU deadline and arrest Mladic , but the ICTY received no indication that an arrest was imminent. (Agence France Presse)
The death of former Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic has put pressure on the Serbian government's to hand over Ratko Mladic and Radovan Karadzic, to the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia (ICTY). Many Serbs, angered by Milosevic's death in custody, are openly speaking against surrendering Mladic and Karadzic, fearing they would face the same fate. (Balkan Investigative Reporting Network)
Reports of the capture of former Serbian General Ratko Mladic have not yet proven true. But the Independent believes justice is closing in on Mladic. The European Union (EU) has put serious pressure on Belgrade to surrender Mladic if Serbia wishes to join the EU. The European Commission is reportedly holding talks on slowing down aid and trade negotiations. The Serbian government has recently shown new readiness to hand Mladic over and it has already surrendered lesser suspects to The Hague.
Belgrade is under increasing international pressure to hand over Ratko Mladic to the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia. The Serbian government has expressed interest in beginning inclusion talks with the European Union. The EU, in turn, has made Mladics' capture one of the prerequisites for beginning any form of official diplomatic relations. (Institute for War and Peace Reporting)
This Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty article offers speculations on the reasons why powerful international military forces remain unable to catch Ratko Mladic and Radovan Karadzic. Whether the two former Serb leaders remain at large due to unstated NATO policy, Muslim and Croatian politicians fear of war secrets revelations or Serb authorities' unwillingness to take political risks, the author affirms that the fugitives are a source of embarrassment to NATO and former Yugoslavia Tribunal officials.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) argues that it is "simply implausible" that the joint capabilities of NATO and the Serbian government are so poor that former Bosnian President Radovan Karadzic and his military leader Ratko Mladic remain at large despite numerous public sightings. HRW calls on Serbia, the EU, and NATO to fulfill their legal and moral obligations and hand the two war criminals over, stating that "the victims of Srebrenica should not have to wait another decade for justice."
Former Bosnian Serb military leader Ratko Mladic has agreed to surrender to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in return for $5 million. Prosecutors in The Hague are prepared to â€œturn a blind eye to the means used to persuade Mladic? but some fear that such negotiations risk damaging the legal system and will further empower the shadowy Serb oligarchs that brokered the deal. (Times)
According to a former Serbian military sergeant, the army of Serbia and Montenegro is hiding Ratko Mladic, one of The Hagues' most wanted war crimes suspects. The ex-sergeant defected from the army in late 2004, but believes Mladic continues to evade capture by moving between Bosnia and Serbia proper. He claims the conservative and strongly nationalistic army has even held a meeting on how to improve Mladics' security. (Independent)
Milan Gvero, a close aide? to former Bosnian Serb army chief Ratko Mladic, has turned himself in to the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslvia and now faces war crimes charges. According to the Independent, Belgrade sweetened? Gvero's surrender with cash compensation for service to the homeland? Hague prosecutors believe Gvero knows where Mladic is hiding.
Documents leaked to a Sarajevo newspaper revealed that former Bosnian Serb General Ratko Mladic received pensions from former Yugoslavia until 2001 and the Bosnian Serb army until 2002, further indicating blatant disregard of the Dayton Peace Accords and the Hague war crimes tribunal by former Yugoslav states. Analysts believe the discovery will cause the international community to change pressure tactics especially on the Serbian government, which has yet to hand over any war criminals to the tribunal. (Institute for War and Peace Reporting)
The Boston Globe argues that NATO's withdrawal from Bosnia will push international and local officials to apprehend former Bosnian Serb President Radovan Karadzic and his top military commander Ratko Mladic. Speculations of their surrender in Bosnian newspapers have been bolstered by Chief UN War Crimes Prosecutor Carla del Ponte's pledge that Karadzic will be arrested very soon?
Serbian top officials reiterated their claim that former Bosnian Serb military leader Ratko Mladic is no longer hiding in the country, urging the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia to have a certain amount of trust" in the Serbian authorities. (Associated Press)
The European Union, the US and the Hague court continues to put immense pressure on Belgrade to hand over former Bosnian Serb army chief Ratko Mladic. All involved parties employ different tactics to persuade Belgrade, often standing in the way of each other. (Institute for War & Peace Reporting)
The US Congress may block aid to Serbia to pressure Belgrade to surrender former Bosnian Serb army chief Ratko Mladic to the ICTY. The US also cuts foreign aid to countries refusing to exempt US citizens from the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court. What exactly is the US more interested in: bringing war criminals to justice or cutting down on government spending? (Institute for War & Peace Reporting)
The Institute for War & Peace Reporting looks into Captain Momir Nikolic's inside account on the massacre at Srebrenica. Nikolic further incriminates General Ratko Mladic and other major actors involved.
The hunt continues for Ratko Mladic, indicted for genocide during the 1992-5 war in Bosnia. International peacekeepers have so far been unable to apprehend either Mladic or his former commander,Radovan Karadzic. (Reuters)
This article provides a brief sketch of Mladic's background and his role as General of the Bosnian Serb army duting the massacre of civilians in Srebrenica, the largest European genocide since World War II. (BBC)
This is an account of the critical days leading up to the killing of 7000 refugees in the Bosnian town of Srebenica, where tens of thousands of civilians had taken refuge from earlier Serb offensives in north-eastern Bosnia. Mladic was general. (BBC)